[Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

Topics and discussion about specific mods
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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

Post by Shenpen »

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Big production update soon
As research is ticking in, new technologies keeps getting ready for your production lines. Next update will see a lot of new high end production equipment being available: Advanced precision metal cutting and grinding processes, that makes for higher performance. This also opens up the possibility for more specialized production lines, where the assemblers are custom fitted for your exact production needs. Again this is done to serve the need for higher performance in your production lines.

These are a few of the items that will be available:
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Injection molds
The ability to form plastic with high accuracy and in complex shapes in just one operation is key to efficient high volume production of all sorts of products. The making of each specialized injection mold is demanding in terms of accuracy and finish, but pays off by providing a fast and reliable production tool.
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Grinding tools
Lapping with abrasive diamond pastes can yield high quality production tools that conforms to very strict tolerances and ensures both speed and longevity of production equipment.
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Progressive stamping dies
Stamped metal has huge advantages over cast or machined parts: By forging along the metals own structural lines strength and endurance is enhanced. The progressive stamping die gives modern production items the benefits that otherwise would require handcrafting by a blacksmith.


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Blast furnace iron casting
Molten iron is used for iron casting in the Blast casting station. This is a very efficient form of production for larger and more complex parts. Also a bit noisy.
Last edited by Shenpen on Sun Jan 03, 2021 10:08 am, edited 23 times in total.

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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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Scrubbing, crushing and screening constitute the commonly used liberation techniques, but the specific
recipe, viz., the extent, the phasing and the type of process action, in each case, is dictated by the ore
type and diamond occurrence.
There is no standard. It, therefore, requires a good theoretical knowledge of ore dressing techniques
coupled with experience, which is why extractive metallurgy is sometimes considered a "black mi".

Horizontal tubular rotating scrubbers are the norm, although there is place for a higher operating risk
log washers, which have greater specific energy input. Scrubbing is required to:
III De-agglomerate the ore and to expose locked diamonds.
III Break down clays that may hinder down stream processes.
III Break down compressed ore cakes created by High Pressure Roll Crushing.
Variables that need consideration include:
III Scrubber solids residence time.
III Scrubber solids to water ratio.
III Medium charge requirements.
III Critical speed.
Jet Pumping
Jet pumping is a convenient method of transporting sensitive material. At the same time a degree of
attritioning, or scrubbing takes place.
Some successful jet pumping applications include:
III Dump reclamation and where a limited amount of scrubbing is required, the two unit processes
are conducted in one operation.
III Moving material from wet bins on board a ship or floating treatment plant, where there are
space limitations.
III Dredging.
Characteristics include:
III Pumping efficiencies are low.
III Water usage is high, requiring careful re-cycle consideration.
III Capital costs are low, in comparison with conventional conveying and scrubbing but at the
expense of operating costs.
III Pumping heads are limited, sometimes requiring a booster pump in the circuit.
III Availability - The particle top size must be carefully monitored to prevent blockages (while the
system comfortably withdraws material from a source of high solids concentration, the ingress
of tramp or large particles severely impacts on availability. In respect of the latter, further work
on materials of construction, particularly post the pump is necessary to reduce stoppages due to
While there are particular attractions to incorporating jet pumping in a flowsheet, careful trade-off
assessment should be conducted, as is the case with any unit process consideration.

Various crushing techniques are used in the diamond industry. As is common with all mineral
treatment plants, crushing plays a role not only in reducing the ore to a size suitable for down-stream
processing, but more importantly in liberation of the sought after mineral.
A range of crushers are employed, depending on ore type and application, namely:
III Dry and wet jaw crushing. The latter is unique to the industry and useful when treating
weathered ores that will ultimately become competent. Generally used in primary applications.
III Toothed double roll crushers, best suited for claggy ore.
III Wet and dry cone crushing, in secondary applications;
III Various forms of inter-particle crushing, with High Pressure Roll Crushing playing a dominant
role when treating competent kimberlites.
III Inter-particle impact crushing is also used where differential crushing can be employed to
III The nutating mill. While not strictly fulfilling a crusher duty, this has found application in the
mass reduction of DMS concentrates

http://www.saimm.co.za/Conferences/Diam ... 2-Hart.pdf

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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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DMS Cyclones
The universally recognised measure of efficiency of separation is a partition curve. This describes the
probability of a particle of certain density reporting to the dense or sink fraction.
Clearly the process engineer will design the plant so that a particle of 3,4 or denser has a 100% chance
of reporting to sinks, but at the same time, one attempts to minimise the quantity of sinks. The more
near gravity mineral there is, the more important it is to use equipment with a sharper partition curve.
Typical partition curves are shown in Table 1.
What is evident is that for a given separating vessel, the coarser particles have a greater propensity to
sink, displaying a lower d50, and visa versa. Also, the surface tension effect results in greater drag
being applied to the smaller particles, so that the finer particle curve is flatter, displaying a longer tail.
The differing cut points for different particle sizes has led to the call for separate circuits to process the
"fine" and "coarse" particle sizes.

This is a feature of any mineral extraction process - the narrower the size range, the more efficient the
process. The down side though, is each circuit needs a capacity up-rate andlor requires adequate surge
capacity ahead of it. Still, plant utilisation is generally sacrificed, for widely ranging feed stock size
distributions. Careful assessment accompanied by dynamic simulation is required when reviewing the
flowsheet circuit.
Considerations in the design of cyclone plants include:

III Understanding the top and bottom particle sizes for maximum "dollar" extraction value.
Chasing the fine diamonds can be at the expense of throughput, which point should be part of
the project's financial evaluation.

III Particle size range - the efficiency of separation is most strongly influenced by the range
treated in a cyclone, particularly in respect of maximising fine diamond recovery and
minimising yield.

III Cyclone pressure - the higher the pressure, the greater the centrifugal force generated. These
forces are needed to overcome the surface tension drag, particularly in respect of the small
particles (the plus 10mm particles could just as efficiently be separated in a static bath). While
some operators prefer running at lower than DSM feed pressure recommendations, we
advocate no less than a pressure equivalent to 14 cyclone diameters for fine diamond

III Cyclone size and number - assuming it is practical to limit the size range treated, the criticality
of using small cyclones for the fine particle separation diminishes. Given the importance of
constant and even flow to the individual cyclones, it becomes a trade-off between a larger
single cyclone, and a number of smaller cyclones whose efficiency is dependant on the longer
term performance of a distributor!
III Rheology - a critical factor which is influenced by medium selection and affected by medium
contamination and the design of the recovery circuit. A number of papers have been presented
at the Samancor Dense Medium Conferences on this topic. Suffice to say, a balance between
viscosity and medium stability is required which is, in turn, reflected in the cyclone differential.


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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

Post by Shenpen »

Diamond ore
Comp 37 01.png
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Industrial diamonds
Comp 38b 04.png
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Rough diamonds
Comp 39 01.png
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Molten iron
Comp 40 01.png
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Lathe bed casting
Comp 41 01.png
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Lathe ways casting
Comp 42 01.png
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Lathe ways casting alternative
Comp 42d 01.png
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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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Blast furnace
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https://sunflagsteel.com/the-5-steps-of ... roduction/
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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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A method of thermal recovery in which a flame front is generated in the reservoir by igniting a fire at the sandface of an injection well. Continuous injection of air or other gas mixture with high oxygen content will maintain the flame front. As the fire burns, it moves through the reservoir toward production wells. Heat from the fire reduces oil viscosity and helps vaporize reservoir water to steam. The steam, hot water, combustion gas and a bank of distilled solvent all act to drive oil in front of the fire toward production wells.
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fireflooding well.png
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3D model by Hans de Ridder

About fireflooding:
https://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/e ... oding.aspx
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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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One Mine's Nickel Processing of Pyrrhoite,
Chalcopyrite and Pentalandite Ores

The ore is crushed to -5 inches in primary cone crushers, then reduced to -1/2" in short head cone crushers. The ore is then ground to -100 mesh in ball mills. Using wet magnetic separators the magnetic ore is separated (pyrrhotite) and further reduced to -200 mesh in a ball mill. Classification is accomplished with screens and cyclones. The pyrrhotite is then sent to froth flotation cells, and produces a 3% nickel concentrate.

The non magnetic ore is sent to a series of rougher, cleaner flotation cells, and produces a 31% copper concentrate. The tailings from these cells is sent to another flotation cell, to recover the nickel, and the concentrate is combined with the 3% nickel concentrate to produce a 12% nickel concentrate.

Most nickel ores have several recoverable metals in them and the process if commonly a multiple stream of metals recovered. The copper concentrate is sent to the copper smelter and 99.99% copper cathode is produced in electrowinning cells. The nickel ore is sent to the nickel refinery, where a complex set of reactions is carried out.** These include leaching in autoclaves using ammonia, heated to around 200 deg F at elevated pressures of 100-150 PSI. The application of heat and pressure dramatically speeds up the chemical reaction and produces the nickel much faster than leaching at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.** There is a primary and a secondary leach circuit, where the solids remaining in the first circuit are sent to a second autoclave to recover any metals the first leach process missed. A slurry of the liquid and solids are then pumped through a thickening and filtration system, separating the non-valuable solids from the liquid containing the nickel.

The nickel and ammonia solution contains 2:2 ratio of nickel to ammonia (molar), which is roughly 50 grams nickel per liter of solution.

The nickel-ammonia solution is then reduced with hydrogen in autoclaves, adding a a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulphate.
This solution is heated to 250 deg F at 350 PSI, in a hydrogen atmosphere. The nickel is reduced by hydrogen and precipitates as fine metallic nickel (Ni).

The nickel settles and the solution is pumped out to a holding tank. Since the solution still contains some nickel , it is re-processed again to recover the remaining nickel. The nickel can then be removed through a cone bottomed tank or by a thickener/filter operation to yield the nickel powder. It is then dried and sent to a briquette process where it is made into pellets or briquettes. It can also be melted and poured into ingots for sale to the market.

Information provided by Charles Kubach, Mining and Mineral Processing Engineer

Ball crushing

90 C = 200 F

nickel ammonia solution (+wastewater)
{crushed nickel ore, amonia, water}

nickel (powder) (+)
{nickel ammonia solution, hydrogen}


Lateritic ores also have a high moisture content (35-40%) that requires drying in a rotary kiln furnace. It produces nickel oxide, which is then reduced using electric furnaces at temperatures between 2480-2930 F° (1360-1610 C°) and volatilized to produce Class I nickel metal and nickel sulfate.

Nickel oxide (+ steam)
{nickel ore + fuel} (r.k. furnace)

{nickel oxide } (furnace)

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Re: [Mod 1.1] Factorio Bitumen

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