Distance - Speed

0 pipes - 240 fluid/sec

4 pipes - 150 fluid/sec

14 pipes - 120 fluid/sec

224 pipes - 90 fluid/sec

357 pipes - 60 fluid/sec

759 pipes - 30 fluid/sec

This limit reduces the capacity of long pipes. Pipe-to-ground helps, it counts as 1 pipe and can reach 5.5x as far. But even pipe-to-ground slows down if you stretch it too far.

The solution is small pumps!

Small pumps pressurize a pipe until it is full again, allowing you to stretch pipes as far as you like without losing speed and capacity. Just remember to put a pumping station before your flow rate drops too far, because once it drops below the limit it is impossible to speed up again.

Each small pump can only handle 30 fluid/sec, so you need to use them in parallel.

Speed - Pumps needed - Distance between pumping stations

30 fluid/sec - 1 pump - 759 pipes

60 fluid/sec - 2 pumps - 357 pipes

90 fluid/sec - 3 pumps - 224 pipes

120 fluid/sec - 4 pumps - 14 pipes

150 fluid/sec - 5 pumps - 4 pipes

Here are the optimal designs for each size pumping station.